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Explore Ways to Design Sustainable Access Ramps at Urban Sites

 

  1. Introduction

One of the pillars of sustainable urban development, providing efficient access, is cost-effective and low-cost. Such a network, including access roadway, sidewalks, bike lanes, and public transportation systems. Approach to sustainable development as well as hiking and economic transport is a priority. Therefore, such a system provides facilities for walking or cycling and the public transport system also facilitates the optimal use of major importance to be. (Burton, 2006:34) urban development of a sloping site in many cities around the world, including issues that we face in our country. In many cases, especially in the country, designed to access these platforms lead to excessive spending, excessive aggression and damage to the natural substrate, and the inefficacy of the network to users. Sometimes ignore the basic principles of communication networks, such as the natural characteristics of the site, a hierarchy of streets, intersections, and inappropriate design spaces required for stationary traffic, etc. in their plans, causing confusion and even failure in the urban fabric and the irreversible ecological and economic losses, create a lot of traffic problems. (Approximately, 1387, 30) appears to be the major cause of this problem is the lack of design standards and principles in this area is needed. Specially designed for traveling on foot and bicycle lanes, it becomes more possible. The slope and topography of the various impacts on the ability of pedestrians and motor vehicles are different .ecological city "is known. The context of mountainous areas because of their natural charm can be structured to achieve the desired pattern is achieved. Use this opportunity to look normal and natural context necessary to maintain it.

 

  1. The sloping site:

The interface between the peaks and valleys, slopes and peaks and valleys occupy more space than that. Among the greatest challenges facing steep places, we can create a smooth surface they are on. There are very limited places in the mountains leveled for construction, it takes us on a more serious note, we use the slopes. Because we live in a country where about 60 percent of its mountainous regions are formed.  (Moghimi, 1387) in the special definition, the slope of the change in elevation between two points on a surface level is clear.

Primarily on sloping land under different specifications:

  • shelves
  • slope
  • topographic features around
  • geographic and climatic characteristics (Bloomberg, 2003:180(

Another concept used on sloping sites, the   "bulge" is a general change in regional terrain or specific points. The vertical difference between the levels of the mountains and desert terrain in the area designated. Topographic changes in side shows and usually shade the surface touching the contoured terrain map is created. The contour line spacing is less, and changes in terrain slope earth faster and further. (Municipal Association of America, 1386, 165)

  1. System Access and sloping site

Quick roadway network is comprised of a network of cities that are non-local aspects, as well as source and destination access network traffic arteries subtle and local aspects .position relative to the open spaces and recreational areas, topography, region, city utilities network, expected traffic volumes and access to city bus lines, as well as considering the cost-effectiveness of the project are examined. In order to achieve sustainable urban development, network access must be designed so that at the same time reducing the cost of environmental, social, and economic, the visual quality of the city meet. The most important factor in the design of urban spaces and ramp access networks is important is given below:

 

  1. A) Ease of moving infantry and cavalry

Among the biggest problems facing sloping sites is the access roadway. Attractive places where people hang out in the mountains as intended, with the cars should be banned have encouraged the implementation of activities. A mountain town full of empty vehicle traffic, and much of the natural environment is the perfect solution for answering. Although this solution is within our reach but denied making machines, applied policy or practice is applicable to all cases. So it is better to select a solution that will be able to access vehicles, and organic spaces in harmony with nature to preserve and strengthen (Dorward, 1990:38)

 

  1. B) Appropriate intervals and how to access services

In the context of sustainable urban design of the city and its departments and localities appeal arises, which should be reflected in the construction of wisdom: access, proximity, and functional integration. About access to services and facilities generally agreed upon is that public transport should be a key role in reducing congestion and pollution (Fry, 1383, 56). Highland sites as an important factor for ease of access to services and how the satisfaction of residents and visitors is increasing. In addition to the access network design, how the distribution of land use and environmental factors are influential. In addition to minimizing damage to the environment and the status quo, satisfied residents are also looking for (Cullen, 1387, 175). For example, almost all resources in urban neighborhoods, access to public transport, agree on this point, the maximum distance from the front door to the station, public transport is about 10 minutes of hiking. Looks about 600 meters away from the edge of the neighborhood and the central region or core transport is an acceptable size. Read the steep slope of the rate of change can be good at this distance, and the distance is reduced. For example, a site with a slope of 8 to 12 percent of the distance of about 350 m. Therefore, the principle layout and design services in the access network that can be used for flat sites in these areas were incorrect and should be measured according to the slope of the range and power of individuals. (3, City Planning Commission, 2005).

 

  1. C) Readable ways

According to Nasr (1988), readability is an environmental factor that allows people to explore their surroundings, without being lost in space. "Lynch" (1960) sees it as a significant part of the city that would order the part and can be easily accessed. Readability in recognition of the city's five main elements (paths, nodes, landmarks, edges, and areas) is affected. (Lynch, 1960), but the significance of these elements is different. Planned environmental research indicates the node and the key role to play in readability in every part of town. (Erem, Sener: 2008) to configure features such as the number of turns and the number of stops or intersections along the way (Kraft: 1997) are affected. Under the direction of the relationship between readability and complexity, the complexity of factors influencing factors can be considered as a criterion for the blind path. Planned environmental research indicates the node and the key role to play in readability in every part of town. (Erem, Sener: 2008) to configure features such as the number of turns and the number of stops or intersections along the way (Krafta: 1997) are affected. Under the direction of the relationship between readability and complexity, the complexity of factors influencing factors can be considered as a criterion for the blind path.

 

  1. D) Standard Tilt

The truth is that a ramp compared to a horizontal surface for track laying has many limitations, the most important criteria is limiting the amount of ramp. (Cullen, 1387, 175) According to the different tilt angles, each with different meanings and implications for development. So in order to make decisions about how to design the access network, it is necessary to map the vertical and sub- vertical edges, steep land, with an average slope of land, land with low slope and flat land available. It requires leveling or terracing of land for development costs and ramp rate can have a major impact on construction costs. Therefore, the slope analysis is performed in order to ensure the least disturbing part of the planning process is crucial information. (Beer, Huygens, 1381, 87) More research is steep amount for each of the functions specified.

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